Terms in graphic design

Brand rel­ev­ance

Com­pli­ance with the ba­sic needs, char­ac­ter­ist­ics and mo­tiv­a­tion of the tar­get audi­ence. In­dic­at­or of the level of de­mand for the brand.

Brand at­trib­ute

The ex­tern­al form of the brand (for ex­ample, name, slo­gan, logo, pack­aging, col­ors, etc.), through which the brand con­tacts the con­sumer.

Iden­tity (cor­por­ate iden­tity)

A set of graph­ic forms and prin­ciples for build­ing visu­al com­mu­nic­a­tions, united by one idea, the main task of which is to single out a com­pany (brand) among them­selves and cre­ate a re­cog­niz­able im­age in the eyes of con­sumers. Iden­tity de­vel­op­ment in­cludes two stages: the first - the cre­ation of graph­ic con­stants, the ba­sic ele­ments of com­mu­nic­a­tion and the prin­ciples of their in­ter­ac­tion, the second - the ad­apt­a­tion of the ba­sic ele­ments and prin­ciples of iden­tity to dif­fer­ent groups of me­dia. The list of po­s­i­tions of cor­por­ate style (iden­tity) is de­term­ined tak­ing in­to ac­count the key points of con­tact of the com­pany (brand) with the con­sumer.


Ad­vert­ising or im­age mes­sage, pos­ted as a block on the site. The ban­ner con­tains a hy­per­link to the ad­vert­iser's re­source, in ap­pear­ance it is stat­ic or dy­nam­ic.


The design for pla­cing out­door ad­vert­ising in large format on the streets of cit­ies and along high­ways.


The term in mar­ket­ing, sym­bol­iz­ing a new in­nov­at­ive product or ser­vice. As a rule, it has a pop­u­lar, eas­ily re­cog­niz­able and leg­ally pro­tec­ted sym­bol­ism of any man­u­fac­turer or product. The brand is cre­ated to dif­fer­en­ti­ate the product, from the sub­sti­tute goods.


A doc­u­ment con­tain­ing a set of in­struc­tions and re­com­mend­a­tions on the po­s­i­tion­ing of the com­pany and its self-iden­ti­fic­a­tion. Brand­book in­cludes in­di­vidu­al com­pon­ents of the com­pany's im­age with the aim of form­ing its steady pos­it­ive repu­ta­tion among cus­tom­ers and part­ners. In fact, a brand book is a doc­u­ment de­scrib­ing the main al­gorithms of form­ing cus­tom­er loy­alty with­in the pro­cess of cre­at­ing a brand.


Activ­it­ies to cre­ate a long-term pref­er­ences for the product, based on a joint en­hanced im­pact on the con­sumer of all ele­ments of the brand and brand­ing policy of the com­pany.


The prin­ted edi­tion of a small volume from 4 to 48 pages. The bro­chure sheets are con­nec­ted to­geth­er by flash­ing, fasten­ing with brack­ets, screw wire, etc. The bro­chure con­tains much more in­form­a­tion than a leaf­let or a book­let.

Vec­tor graph­ics

A kind of graph­ics that uses math­em­at­ic­al for­mu­las to de­scribe the im­age con­tained in a file. Vec­tor graph­ics con­sist of a set of points and con­nect­ing curves. Ad­vant­ages of us­ing vec­tor graph­ics are scal­ing without loss of qual­ity and small amount of memory oc­cu­pied by the file.


Unit in the writ­ing sys­tem. For ex­ample, in graph­eme, the let­ter "A" has a cap­it­al, line and it­al­ic vari­ants. A graph is like a "skel­et­on" of a let­ter or sym­bol, that is a con­struc­tion scheme that dis­tin­guishes it from oth­er let­ters.


A doc­u­ment that con­tains rules for the use of the logo and the main ele­ments of the cor­por­ate style when de­vel­op­ing ad­vert­ising or im­age com­mu­nic­a­tions. The guide con­tains in­form­a­tion about the com­pany's col­ors and fonts; the pro­por­tions of the lo­gob­lock, its vari­ations and min­im­um di­men­sions; rules for the use of the logo and style ele­ments on vari­ous back­grounds, their co-scale and ne­ces­sary in­dents; re­com­mend­a­tions on lay­out, gen­er­al styl­ist­ics, etc. The in­ter­face may be part of the brand book, or it may be an in­de­pend­ent guide.

Graph­ic design

The dir­ec­tion of design, fo­cused on the cre­ation of a har­mo­ni­ous and spec­tac­u­lar visu­al en­vir­on­ment. Graph­ic design can in­clude the design of sym­bols or signs, lo­gos, ser­vices of de­sign­ers, design­ing print­ing products, etc.


Cre­at­ive activ­ity, the pur­pose of which is to define the form­al qual­it­ies of in­dus­tri­al products. These qual­it­ies in­clude ex­tern­al fea­tures of the product, but mainly those struc­tur­al and func­tion­al in­ter­re­la­tions that make the product in­to a single whole, both from the point of view of the con­sumer and from the man­u­fac­turer's point of view.

Design concept

The project design, a gen­er­al­ized design, out­lining the idea of solv­ing an ac­tu­al sci­en­tific­ally groun­ded task and in­dic­at­ing the ways of achiev­ing the goal.

Pack­age design

The pro­cess of design­ing, or pack­aging the product in ac­cord­ance with the ap­proved visu­al con­stants of the brand of the brand, to which the product be­longs. In a broad sense - an in­de­pend­ent artist­ic dis­cip­line with its own laws, his­tory and can­ons.


The ver­tic­al in­ter­val between lines of text, which is meas­ured from the base line of one line to the line of the line above. Baseline aligns the bot­tom edge of most font char­ac­ters.


Ele­ment of iden­tity (cor­por­ate iden­tity), rep­res­ent­ing the out­line of the full or ab­bre­vi­ated name of the com­pany or product. In the logo, in ad­di­tion to let­ters, ad­di­tion­al graph­ic ele­ments may be used, which are part of the in­scrip­tion. The logo in com­bin­a­tion with a brand name, slo­gan or an ex­plan­at­ory in­scrip­tion is a pro­pri­et­ary unit.


A com­plex of works re­lated to the cre­ation of a unique, mem­or­able com­pany name, product, ser­vice or web­site. This ser­vice in­cludes the de­vel­op­ment of sev­er­al vari­ants of names, list­ing the ob­ject­ive ad­vant­ages and dis­ad­vant­ages of each. The main task of nam­ing is to cre­ate the bright­est and most mem­or­able name, which will be clearly as­so­ci­ated with cus­tom­ers with the com­pany's activ­it­ies.


A struc­ture cre­ated from re­peat­ing ele­ments - mod­ules. The pat­tern is used as a back­ground im­age or as part of a trade­mark iden­ti­fic­a­tion when it is ne­ces­sary to brand dif­fer­ent sur­faces.


A sign that ex­presses the key re­cog­niz­able fea­tures of an ob­ject (ob­ject, phe­nomen­on), its main visu­al char­ac­ter­ist­ics, presen­ted in a con­densed schem­at­ic form.

In­dus­tri­al design

Type of activ­ity, which in­cludes ele­ments of art, mar­ket­ing and tech­no­logy. In­dus­tri­al design cov­ers the widest range of ob­jects: from house­hold utensils to high-tech and sci­ence-in­tens­ive products. In the tra­di­tion­al sense, the tasks of in­dus­tri­al design in­clude pro­to­typ­ing of house­hold ap­pli­ances, pro­duc­tion plants and their in­ter­faces, ground and air trans­port (in­clud­ing cars, air­planes, trains), a vari­ety of equip­ment. A spe­cial place is oc­cu­pied by the design of fur­niture and in­teri­or ele­ments, dishes and cut­lery, the de­vel­op­ment of forms and con­cepts of which has deep his­tor­ic­al pre­con­di­tions.

Ras­ter graph­ics

A kind of graph­ics that de­scribes an im­age us­ing a spe­cial grid filled with a set of pixels of cer­tain col­ors. The qual­ity of this im­age de­pends on the num­ber of pixels per unit area.


A set of ac­tions to change the ex­ist­ing im­age of the brand, re­ori­ent­a­tion in po­s­i­tion­ing, ad­just­ing brand val­ues ​​and ideo­logy, chan­ging the strategy. Rebrand­ing is most of­ten car­ried out in con­nec­tion with a change in the struc­ture of the com­pany (for ex­ample, as a res­ult of a mer­ger), with a change in activ­ity, a change in the tar­get audi­ence, due to sig­ni­fic­ant changes in the com­pet­it­ive en­vir­on­ment, and, if ne­ces­sary, evade neg­at­ive brand as­so­ci­ations among con­sumers, if any.


Meas­ures to change the visu­al com­pon­ent of the brand. Re­styl­ing can be car­ried out with­in the frame­work of rebrand­ing, or be an in­de­pend­ent pro­cess for up­dat­ing the logo, cor­por­ate iden­tity or pack­aging. The scale of the changes can range from a small ad­just­ment of the logo, to a glob­al re­vi­sion of the graph­ics, the col­or scheme and the main ele­ments.

Slo­gan (motto of the brand)

The motto or slo­gan ex­press­ing the com­mu­nic­at­ive idea of the brand in a con­densed form. The slo­gan is de­signed to con­vey to the con­sumer the mean­ing of the ad­vert­ising com­pany or the philo­sophy and val­ues of the brand.


The art of text format­ting when typ­ing fonts. Us­ing the rules of ty­po­graphy helps text to be easy to read, op­tim­ally struc­tured and easy to un­der­stand. Ty­po­graph­ic­al in the nar­row sense - one of the dir­ec­tions of graph­ic design.


It is a col­lec­tion of cer­tain prop­er­ties, as­so­ci­ations, im­ages that al­low the product of this trade mark to stand out from the com­pet­i­tion in the mar­ket. The whole pro­cess of brand­ing be­gins with the cre­ation of a brand of goods. It rep­res­ents a start­ing point for all oth­er activ­it­ies.


Dis­tance, in which one let­ter or char­ac­ter in a line is sep­ar­ated from the oth­er. "Pos­it­ive" track­ing in­creases dis­tances between signs, to cre­ate a more lu­cid set of text and im­prove read­ab­il­ity. "Neg­at­ive" track­ing re­duces the dis­tance between char­ac­ters, mak­ing the text more dense.

Food styl­ist­ics (food pho­to­graphy)

One of the types of sub­ject pho­to­graphy. Ad­vert­ising food pho­to­graphy as an in­de­pend­ent dir­ec­tion of com­mer­cial pho­to­graphy was formed in the 50s of the twen­ti­eth cen­tury in the United States. At this time, there was a trans­ition from paint ad­vert­ising to pho­to­graphy.

Com­pany logo block

Com­bined in the com­pos­i­tion of the sym­bol and logo, as well as vari­ous ex­plan­at­ory in­scrip­tions and, of­ten, the cor­por­ate motto.

Brand name (trade­mark)

A unique graph­ic ele­ment that can be placed next to the com­pany name or used sep­ar­ately, while sym­bol­iz­ing the com­pany. The sign can be made in the form of an ab­stract form, as well as in the form of a lit­er­al or sym­bol­ic il­lus­tra­tion of the goods / ser­vices offered by the com­pany. In ad­di­tion to the logo, the trade­mark helps to strengthen the iden­ti­fic­a­tion of the com­pany: it en­ables you to pass ad­di­tion­al in­form­a­tion, add an emo­tion­al or a se­mant­ic em­phas­is.


Styled in a single style of draw­ing let­ters, num­bers, punc­tu­ation and sym­bols. Fonts dif­fer in the nature of graph­ics and pur­pose, for ex­ample, for typ­ing large amounts of text in books, or for high­light­ing key mes­sages in ad­vert­ising com­mu­nic­a­tions. Font can have ad­di­tion­al out­lines, dif­fer­ing in the thick­ness of let­ters or slope.

Col­or mod­el "CMYK"

Col­or mod­el used in print­ing. The ab­bre­vi­ation "CMYK" is formed from the names of the primary col­ors: Cy­an, Magenta, Yel­low, Black. The let­ter "K", in­stead of the ex­pec­ted "B", is the last let­ter in the name Black Black. It is taken in or­der to avoid con­fu­sion with the col­or Blue from the RGB mod­el. With the col­or mod­el "CMYK" works most of the print­ing devices. Files to be prin­ted must be con­ver­ted to this mod­el.

Col­or mod­el "RGB"

A col­or mod­el con­sist­ing of the primary col­ors: Red, Green and Blue. The col­or mod­el "RGB" de­scribes the col­ors emit­ted by the dis­plays. All the vari­ety of shades is cre­ated with the help of these three col­ors.

Pantone col­ors

"Pantone" is a stand­ard­ized col­or de­tec­tion sys­tem de­veloped by the Amer­ic­an com­pany of the same name. The col­or "Pantone" is cre­ated by mix­ing sev­er­al col­ors, has strictly reg­u­lated para­met­ers and is in­dic­ated by an in­di­vidu­al num­ber.

Col­or spec­trum

Har­mon­ic­ally in­ter­re­lated shades of col­or. The col­or gamut is of­ten de­term­ined by such val­ues as "warm" or "cold", "bright" or "faded", "bright" or "dark".

Col­or palette

A fixed range of col­ors and shades used in a cer­tain work of fine art or design.


A pre­lim­in­ary sketch that fixes the design of a work of art, a struc­ture, a mech­an­ism, or a sep­ar­ate part of it.